Home > Approach > Saying "how are you?" on the telephone

Saying "how are you?" on the telephone

I've heard it said that salespeople shouldn't say "how are you?" when making appointment setting calls with new prospects, and they should get straight to the point of why they are calling.

I've noticed in my own appointment setting endeavors, that when I say "how are you?" in a way that conveys warmth, enthusiasm and personal power, I actually get a positive response from the person I'm talking with most of the time, regardless of their status or position, and this enhances their receptivity to my call. Even if you get a blunt "good" in return, at least that person knows you're not intimidated by him or her.

In the long run it probably doesn't matter a lot if you say it or you don't, but I was just curious as to why people think it actually harmed the call? Do you think culture has something to do with it? I'm not American but as I understand it the North and the South are quite different therefore may require different approaches, for instance the South may value a more friendly, laid back approach? - by sales_ace
I've noticed it depends on inflection. The highest calibration seems to come from accenting the word, "you." The lowest comes from a straight monotone.

"How are you?" is, after all a question, isn't it? Like all questions in selling, their effectiveness is in direct proportion to how much we want to know the answer. - by Gary A Boye
IMO, such a question and the accompanying response is not likely to be the best use of the precious first few seconds of the initial contact. - by Jeff Blackwell
How about replacing "how are you" with "did I catch/call you at an OK time?" - I know it is a yes/no question, but it immediatly shows respect for the person that you are calling. Are there versions of this that is not a closed question? - by dlytle1
How about replacing "how are you" with "did I catch/call you at an OK time?" - I know it is a yes/no question, but it immediately shows respect for the person that you are calling. Are there versions of this that is not a closed question?
Contrary to much sales training lore, there is nothing wrong with asking a yes/no question.

Again, a question's effectiveness is in direct proportion to how much we want to know the answer.

We WOULD want to know if we were calling at an inappropriate time. - by Gary A Boye
Contrary to much sales training lore, there is nothing wrong with asking a yes/no question.

Again, a question's effectiveness is in direct proportion to how much we want to know the answer.

We WOULD want to know if we were calling at an inappropriate time.

In door-to-door cold calling, I would walk in their business with my order book and brochures and say:

"I'm from X company, have you ever seen one of our......?

No??

Well, you take a look at this (brochure) and I'll bring one in.
(I had inventory in my car)

That's it!

That was my approach and I never changed it.

________________

I had their minds focused on what I wanted them to focus on from the very beginning.

When I left for the car, this gave them time to see what we had.

I brought the item in and demonstrated the vast difference between us and our competitor. I never mention my name nor ever began with "how are you" or anything like that. Not that its wrong--I just didn't do it.

I took all of the typical (cordial) language out and never used words like buy, sell, selling, or consult.

By starting with a question, that drew their attention away from me and into their own thinking and FEELINGS. Their attention was on the brochure, the product I was demonstrating, or my close.

I averaged 13 sales for every 20 cold calls.

Now, that certainly can't be done with every product. But when cold calling small retail products this worked best. - by John Voris
That's a pretty good closing rate. What were you selling? And would you use the same/similar approach if you were making large account sales where relationships were really important? - by salesjunior
You have perhaps one of industry's best closing rates for cold calls, at 65%. You ARE a born salesperson; hats off to you!

How I wish we had someone like you sell our high end PPC Internet Marketing services for big businesses, anywhere in the world!

Ganesan. :~) - by ezynes
That's a pretty good closing rate. What were you selling? And would you use the same/similar approach if you were making large account sales where relationships were really important?
I was selling gourmet food which is certainly not high-tech or complicated in anyway.

I used the same system with a slight difference working for a non-profit and acquiring donations.

I did eliminate the feeling of rejection which was my main problem before. But that is a technique I had to learn. - by John Voris
You have perhaps one of industry's best closing rates for cold calls, at 65%. You ARE a born salesperson; hats off to you!

How I wish we had someone like you sell our high end PPC Internet Marketing services for big businesses, anywhere in the world!

Ganesan. :~)
Thanks but it was very hard for me.

I was fired 8 times before and gave up on selling. Later, life placed me back into selling (with me fighting all the way) and I had to first find a way to defeat the feeling of rejection that got me fired in the past. I did and sold for another 30 years. - by John Voris
Interesting. How did you learn to defeat the feeling of rejection? It's something I have a bit of trouble with sometimes. - by salesjunior
Goes to prove salespersons are not necessarily born?...

...but could be developed (including 'on the job' training)? This is what I had argued in another post.

Ganesan. - by ezynes
Interesting. How did you learn to defeat the feeling of rejection? It's something I have a bit of trouble with sometimes.

Through extensive research years ago, I discovered that rejection, happiness, anger, sadness, joy and many other natural responses, are all eventually tethered to a single motivation.

Once I knew my single motivation, I was able to see why I felt rejection. Not all "no's" have an equal impact because of our unique responses. Once I learned the "why" I was able to eliminate it.

Anyone can do it. Sales training in general is designed for the masses, leaving your uniqueness out of the equation.

Experienced sales people who take you under their wing can have you produce miracles. There are many here that can do just that because they learn who YOU are. - by John Voris
Goes to prove salespersons are not necessarily born?...

...but could be developed (including 'on the job' training)? This is what I had argued in another post.

Ganesan.
Yes, but was I happy, content, fulfilled or have a sense of well-being? NO! The question is--do you want to sell or be happy?

Hopefully they are the same but for many that is certainly not true.

I trained myself to do something that was not in my nature. I was resigned and not content.

Could you train yourself to be a mortician? Maybe. Would you be happy, I doubt it.

Why is it that plumbers don't need motivation seminars? - by John Voris
Why is it that plumbers don't need motivation seminars?
What frame of reference are you using as you say that? - by Jeff Blackwell
John,

Good point. I completely agree happiness is far more important than anything else, even career and life success.

We've heard a lot about Success Coaches, but we hardly get to hear about Happiness Coaches; there's a huge unmet need, and hopefully demand too. Most of us are a lot more successful than happy.

Why not consider becoming a Success Coach, if you have the passion for this and are reasonably well equipped? It will be very satisfying for you and beneficial to the world. There's a world of knowledge and experience base available to tap into, esp. from the realm of philosophy. We can have a lot more of happy people among us; the world needs more happiness than success.

Ganesan. - by ezynes
What frame of reference are you using as you say that?
Hey Jeff,

Well, sales is one of the few careers "freely chosen," where motivational seminars are often needed for that person just to continue.

Regardless of the career choice, the beginning often does not provide stability or security until some experience sets in. But it doesn't take long to know if being an accountant, cop, fireman, nurse, plumber or tennis instructor is right for you.

Imagine your neurosurgeon is late for your preoperative appointment because he or she was attending a motivational seminar!

The sales training industry promises of "riches" and a life of "freedom," is the bait usually dangled in front of recruits. Management keeps them as long as possible because the agent works on commission.

In the mean time, these agents are not able to pay bills and think there is something wrong with them. When maybe they are just in the wrong branch of sales.

So, they go to a motivational seminar (therapy) then later after an afternoon of hearing "no," they go to a movie all day or sit in their car and read or go shopping.

I was one of them at one time so I know that feeling.

When someone is not motivated over time, there is usually a very good reason that has to do with a conflict between what they are doing in life and what they were designed to do best.

So, I was responding to ezynes that yes, I could sell but I was not happy on almost every level except I made excellent money.

Does being able to sell make you a sales agent? Or, is there another qualifier? - by John Voris
When someone is not motivated over time, there is usually a very good reason that has to do with a conflict between what they are doing in life and what they were designed to do best.
In your opinion, (1) Who created that "design" and (2) How was that "design" created? - by Jeff Blackwell
In your opinion, (1) Who created that "design" and (2) How was that "design" created?
Good question!

This is under debate and most likely cannot be resolved soon.

I believe we create a single opinion (life perspective or stand) about life at an early age that has a wide scope of influence and even domination over our future behaviors, feelings, emotions etc.. This was the direct result of an emotionally charged event in childhood. In fact, this is what my clients report.

Others believe that this opinion (life perspective or stand) was present at birth and an event awakened it. While I have problems with this position, neither can be definitively proven.

Regardless, this single perspective is essential for the sense of self to be sustained over time. There must be something permanent about us or we could not have relationships or even have the same motivation to return to salespractice.

At the same time we need to have a flexible side to meet the challenges of life.

This consistent internal self and the flexible external self function as catalysts that feed into the ego, to use a Jungian reference.

That is, this duality is funneled into the single self. - by John Voris
How about replacing "how are you" with "did I catch/call you at an OK time?" - I know it is a yes/no question, but it immediatly shows respect for the person that you are calling. Are there versions of this that is not a closed question?

I have better results when I say "Did I catch you at a bad time?"
Most people when called cold are wary and contrary. They want to go negative right away. I have found that when I ask if I have called at a bad time and it is, I get an opening invitation to call back at a better time. If it is a good time then I am able to set my appointment or complete my agenda. - by triadtraining
John,

You make a good point.

I believe we create a single opinion (life perspective or stand) about life at an early age that has a wide scope of influence and even domination over our future behaviors, feelings, emotions etc.. This was the direct result of an emotionally charged event in childhood. In fact, this is what my clients report.

Others believe that this opinion (life perspective or stand) was present at birth and an event awakened it. While I have problems with this position, neither can be definitively proven.

Regardless, this single perspective is essential for the sense of self to be sustained over time.
I've heard people call this as the individual's "World view". In a dynamically changing world, we change some of our world views over time, and retain the others. These world views help us take the decisions and positions we take.

Seth Godin (one of the most popular marketing thinkers of our times, who authored "All Marketers Are Liars", "Idea Virus", "Tribes, "Permission Marketing") uses this term often in marketing context.

Ganesan. :~) - by ezynes
IMO, such a question and the accompanying response is not likely to be the best use of the precious first few seconds of the initial contact.
One might see that it could be the best possible use of the precious first few seconds...... getting the next several minutes of contact time. - by D123avek
One might see that it could be the best possible use of the precious first few seconds...... getting the next several minutes of contact time.
What do you have in mind? - by Jeff Blackwell
What do you have in mind?
In many selling situations, the sales process really breaks down into a series of steps you will take to get on to the next stage. You gain trust, increasing your leverage, and are granted more time with the client as you progress in the cycle- even a cycle as short as an initial phone call. IMO, rapport (I am defining the 'hello how are you today' as rapport) should almost never be taken out of the cycle- albeit a brief, ice-cold initial cycle such as a telephone call. - by D123avek
IMO, rapport (I am defining the 'hello how are you today' as rapport) should almost never be taken out of the cycle- albeit a brief, ice-cold initial cycle such as a telephone call.
Thank you for sharing your viewpoint.

I do not see "hello how are you today" as rapport but instead a greeting. IMO, rapport is more along the lines of "a relationship of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between people". - by Jeff Blackwell
I say it on follow up calls if I haven't spoken to the person for a day or so. On the initial cold call it usually causes a reaction like "what are you selling?" - by upmysleeve
Why is it that plumbers don't need motivation seminars?

I am happy you brought this up.My idustry for too long has thought of themselves as being just a plumber.Times they are a changing.

Ah but they do need motivation. The reason they go to movies to chill and relax is due to not knowing where else to go. This is my industry and I know it very well. I belong to numerous trade forums and I see it first hand in all the trades. The industry as a whole is far behind in sales training, marketing, using the web as a means. It seems the question is always what can I do to increase business? The answer to that question is always I am just a plumber and I do not see why I should do this, this or that to gain new business. I should not have to increase my existing client’s wants because they only called me to do this. The mind set is far behind and did not really start to think in a different way until the 80’s.

As this industry grows outside of their individually self imposed box the innovative and fearless owners have realized the necessity for motivational seminars, sales training, and additional marketing outside of post card mailers. The problem in this industry is the lack of industry specific training programs intended for the service industry or retail side. The top guys in the industry are; Charlie Greer, Skip Anderson, and Joe Crisara,,Ellen Rohr and certain sales organizations such as Clockwork, Nexstar, and the PHCC offered sales.

Next decision which one best suites the company need and how does a company continue the education.

How does this coincide with what to say on the phone? It is the beginning of every opportunity for any trade or service company. The more professional the person is receiving and answering the customer’s phone call increases exponentially the potential of a successful sales opportunity. All of us need motivation at some time and a well place motivational seminar is what the doctor ordered.

How are you, followed by another question or statement that has nothing to do with how are you informs the client you really did not want to hear their reply. When it is asked follow it up with something that resembles words that follow "how are you". I prefer to say; it is a great day at Bill the Plumber, how can I make you smile. Frequently that is enough to get them to smile and forget for a minute the irritating issue that plagues him or her. What you say and how you say it will affect the customer. It can influence where and how far the opportunity will go. It does not guarantee the sale or booked call it will guarantee more failures if you do not pay attention to it.

Zig Ziglar states people do not care what you know until they know you care. (care about them)
- by rich34232
John,

You make a good point.

I've heard people call this as the individual's "World view". In a dynamically changing world, we change some of our world views over time, and retain the others. These world views help us take the decisions and positions we take.

Seth Godin (one of the most popular marketing thinkers of our times, who authored "All Marketers Are Liars", "Idea Virus", "Tribes, "Permission Marketing") uses this term often in marketing context.

Ganesan. :~)
For decades science has known we function as if we are two people, with a unifying decision making Ego.

I was referring to our internal sense of identity that is sustained over time. This consistent "world-view" is our private inner sense of self.

We also have an external sense of identity that occurs in the moment. This is our flexible and multiple persona generating very changeable "world views," for social purposes.

Trainers do not know to make this distinction and ask people to change their states of mind responsible for "who they are" intrinsically, which is not possible in normal mentally healthy people. - by John Voris
The industry as a whole is far behind in sales training, marketing, using the web as a means. It seems the question is always what can I do to increase business? The answer to that question is always I am just a plumber and I do not see why I should do this, this or that to gain new business. I should not have to increase my existing clientís wants because they only called me to do this. The mind set is far behind and did not really start to think in a different way until the 80ís.
I'm confused by what you said here about "the question" and "the answer."

It seems to me anyone asking such a good question would not follow it up by entertaining the answer you described.

Also, how do you go about "increasing your existing client's wants?"

Also, the industry as a whole is far behind WHO? - by Gary A Boye
Trainers do not know to make this distinction and ask people to change their states of mind responsible for "who they are" intrinsically, which is not possible in normal mentally healthy people.
Hello John. :) What would be an example of asking people to change their states of mind responsible for "who they are" intrinsically? - by Jeff Blackwell
Gary

I do not want to hi-jack the thread so I will send you an email . If you see fit to add it to this discussion and it fits we can add it.
Rich

I would like to thank John for saying what he had on paper. It is a problem in my industry that plumbers think of themselves as just a plumber. That is what makes me different than my competition and my customers get the chance to experience a different way of doign business. - by rich34232
Hello John. :) What would be an example of asking people to change their states of mind responsible for "who they are" intrinsically?
Hey Jeff,

When seasoned sales people as yourself, successfully train others, it is due in part to your intuitive awareness of their major hidden inherent qualities and dispositions essential to sales.

(When I mentioned "trainers," my focus was on the Traditional Sales Training Industry.)

Example:

In the life insurance business, prospects are either at work and appointments can be made during the day or at home after the prospect has returned from their day job. For most new recruits, the bulk of appointments are made at night and weekends.

Some married people find that this schedule is not only difficult but contradictory to their profound intrinsic loyalty and devotion to "The Family." (Now, most of us have these same feelings but for some it is an obsession.)

These people begin making a few appointments at night but even when the wife is willing to endure his nightly absence, he often cannot continue. The feelings of guilt are just too great.

Many others would shift, making their appointments only on the weekend but the result is the same. If children were involved, this guilt was even worse.

Telling someone to "change their state of mind" about family is asking them to change who they are intrinsically. It didn't matter how many lectures the Vice President gave this married man "Bob," he could never escape guilt.

When he worked evenings, in his mind the family was neglected and guilt set in and if he was watching his son's basketball game, he was guilty for not working.

This guilt could not be altered. He had to quit.

Example

A quick example is that many people simply cannot cause discomfort in other people. As new sales agents, these people cannot continue asking the prospect for a sale after an objection or two.

They intrinsically cannot be the cause of struggle. Asking them to be persistent in their questioning is simply asking them to abandon the essence of who they are.

Now, for the rest this is not an issue. - by John Voris
Telling someone to "change their state of mind" about family is asking them to change who they are intrinsically. It didn't matter how many lectures the Vice President gave this married man "Bob," he could never escape guilt.
Hi John. :) I am not sure I can agree. Please tell me what you mean by asking someone to "change their state of mind" and what would that sound like? - by Jeff Blackwell
Hi John. :) I am not sure I can agree. Please tell me what you mean by asking someone to "change their state of mind" and what would that sound like?
Jeff,

In my Bob example, the Vice President told him to begin thinking of how selling insurance at night and the weekends would eventually help his family. He couldn't because everyday is family day for him.

His devotion to family ran his life. It was the criteria he used for all his major decision processes from his college degree to who he married and where he worked.

For me, family may be a consideration but one I must think about. For Bob it is part of his nature.
_________________

The other example concerned how many times should someone hear "no" before backing away. As you know there is not a mysterious number. It is based on experience.

If every sales rep walked away after the first "no," nothing would get sold. Ted's attitude was after hearing the first "no" he was being a pest. If he pressed the issue, he was harassing the prospect in his mind.

With Ted, his devotion to harmony to the exclusion of struggle is an intrinsic state of mind that has been with him all his life. He has always been concerned about the well-being of others.
________________________

So for Bob, any request by the sales trainer that contradicts his essential moral stand concerning family, will aways be met with resistance. For him that cannot be changed. He would be forced to quit.

The same is true for Ted but his topic is being asked to cause what he believes is struggle for someone else. When asked to press the "no," there will be nothing but resistance.

Ted may ask for more coaching on how to deal with the many objections prospects offer. As long as he is asked to press the issue, in the end it won't matter. He has to quit.
________________________

The state of mind I am referring to is something we don't have to think about.

For example are you a curious person? Everyone is not as curious as you by the way. That is major state of mind that seldom leaves you and you never have to think about needing to be curious.

For someone to ask you to stop being curious is like asking Bob to work instead of seeing his family or asking Ted to annoy people after he has heard "no" once or twice.

I hope that helps. - by John Voris
Hi John. :) I am not sure I can agree. Please tell me what you mean by asking someone to "change their state of mind" and what would that sound like?
Jeff,

Here's another take.

Let's say Bob is working for you. You see him each morning and he is not selling. You ask him why. He will come up with any excuse possible because he does not want to admit that something psychological is keeping him from selling. He desperately wants to identity with you in order to make sales his home.

What would you do next?

Our Bob said he's having difficulty in closing and just needed more time.

The Vice President pulled him aside and lectured him on the topic. The Vice President thought he would resolve the issue by getting him to shift his state of mind.

In truth, Bob was hiding his real resistance to selling, which for him was a mental block and he did not know if he could overcome it.

So, "state of mind" is very misleading. Usually "state of mind" involves awareness as if saying, "Oh yea, I can't attend these appointments because I miss my family too much--I don't know why I am different than everyone else--its just how I feel."

All Bob knew was he had a "mental block" and had to invent something to buy time in case he could solve the problem. Bob was an excellent candidate for attending a Motivational Seminar.

Actually, there was no problem. He was just not designed to sell. No one could alter his internal "state of mind" regarding his dedication to Family. - by John Voris
Bob was an excellent candidate for attending a Motivational Seminar.
What qualified Bob as an excellent candidate for attending a Motivational Seminar?

Actually, there was no problem. He was just not designed to sell. No one could alter his internal "state of mind" regarding his dedication to Family.
Has Bob always been/ will always be "not designed to sell"? Where did that design come from? - by Jeff Blackwell
What qualified Bob as an excellent candidate for attending a Motivational Seminar?

Has Bob always been/ will always be "not designed to sell"? Where did that design come from?
Well, since Bob could not nail down his mental block alone, finding someone who could help him would have been a reasonable move, if he wanted to stay in sales.

People attend motivational seminars for many reasons as you know. One of them comes from watching others make a good living at selling when they are experiencing a mental wall that is stopping them.

Many people attending motivational seminars are their trying to shove a square peg into a round hole. If they looked at their natural abilities they could easily discover what they should be doing in life to produce money some sense of happiness.

_________________________________________________


As far as design goes: early in life we develop and maintain preferential interests, like and dislikes. We select our prefered experiences and find certain events cause us happiness while others cause discomfort.

If you are not a person willing to take highly dangerous physical risks how could you become a mountain climber, police officer, deal with fire and rescue?

If you are very sensitive to physically repugnant events, how can you become a doctor, nurse, mortician, or one of those who clean-up murder scenes.

This should gives you an idea of what I mean by design. - by John Voris
I agree that the mental maps (meanings) and beliefs (confirmed thoughts) created early in life are first in time. However, as Michael Hall (Mind Lines/Frame Games) points out":
"Early childhood development and experiences play a highly formative, although not a fatalistic role."
"Like first impressions, first events, experiences, words, labels, ideas, people, events, circumstances, etc. tend to set the initial frames of our world. They become the referencing points that we use to makes sense of things.
As we grow and evolve these executive frames of reference are subject to change. As Michael Hall points out:
"Because our mental maps and beliefs are ultimately information, other ideas can and do influence them."
"When we change an executive frame of reference, it changes our personality, identity, emotions, destiny, and future."
- by Jeff Blackwell
I agree that the mental maps (meanings) and beliefs (confirmed thoughts) created early in life are first in time. However, as Michael Hall (Mind Lines/Frame Games) points out":
"Early childhood development and experiences play a highly formative, although not a fatalistic role."
Fatalism comes in “form,” he is referring to content. This is the old determinism/ freedom debate.

You cannot understand a “300 grey Chrysler 4-door sedan” (content) without first knowing what a Car is. Once you understand “car” then you never need to see a 300 grey Chrysler only the description to know what it is.

Jeff, if you consider yourself a highly curious person as I do, then is it an imprisoning comment to say that maybe your fate is to always be curious? Does curiosity specifically determine what is in your life?

No one can determine “what” you will be curious about, but we all will be able to predict your behavior when a curious event presents itself.

Mental maps and beliefs emanating early in life is what psychiatrists face everyday. They are running their patients lives. It is causing them mental pain as an adult.

The trick is reference and scope of influence. So he is right that early experience never makes the content of one’s life fatalistic, but fate is present when determining how the content got there in the first place.

"Like first impressions, first events, experiences, words, labels, ideas, people, events, circumstances, etc. tend to set the initial frames of our world. They become the referencing points that we use to makes sense of things.
As we grow and evolve these executive frames of reference are subject to change. As Michael Hall points out:
"Because our mental maps and beliefs are ultimately information, other ideas can and do influence them."
We are back to reference. Mental maps and beliefs are learned socially beginning at home. They guide us through a very flexible world and are in constant flux. They are subject to change with physical and social changes.

However, the feelings that accompany this ‘information” is not the same. How you feel about Family for example may never change, or your feelings about people who cheat or people who refuse to better themselves.

You will always find at least one feeling that has been with you since your early 20’s. That never changes because if it did—the Jeff we all know and love would disappear.

"When we change an executive frame of reference, it changes our personality, identity, emotions, destiny, and future."
This is psychologically impossible for a person functioning in the range of normalcy. This people are the selling of hope. They want you to think you can change if being yourself is not getting you happiness. The fact is, you take Jeff everywhere you go.

This subject has been explored from Plato to the present day. Mr. Hall has many very different concepts tossed in the same basket.

What does happen is Jeff can change but only as a Jeff.

Jeff decides a change is needed and why. Jeff decides if a change has been accomplished. Jeff decides what is a change, how can it be said that a change has taken place—ask Jeff. Jeff decides how this will come about. Jeff will add his own creativity in this altered expression of Jeff.

If you could change like he is describing, you would be in the psyche ward as schizophrenic with multiple personalities.

We all change personality given the environment: you don’t act the same way in a bar as you do in a court-room ( I hope)

Emotions change even when we don’t want them to such as embarrassment.

Destiny (determined) has structure whereas future is open - by John Voris
You cannot understand a “300 grey Chrysler 4-door sedan” (content) without first knowing what a Car is. Once you understand “car” then you never need to see a 300 grey Chrysler only the description to know what it is.
"Meaning arises from, and operates according to, the frame that we put around any event or situation. Here the contexts (or frames) that we apply to the information controls our derived and attributed meanings. To "understand" any event we have to reference it in terms of something. The context that we bring to the event may be another event, a symbol, word, experience, etc. That operates as our frame-of-reference." - Michael Hall
No one can determine “what” you will be curious about, but we all will be able to predict your behavior when a curious event presents itself.
When would this prediction of my behavior not apply?
However, the feelings that accompany this ‘information” is not the same. How you feel about Family for example may never change, or your feelings about people who cheat or people who refuse to better themselves.
Do you feel that changing context can change, in an instant, the meaning we attribute to content?
Jeff decides a change is needed and why.
Do you feel it is possible for someone to frame a situation in such a way that changes its meaning for me without me deciding if the change is needed and why? - by Jeff Blackwell
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